During the same decade (1830s) that George Betjemann Jnr, the Cabinetmaker, married and had issue in St Giles and Clerkenwell (see Betjemann pedigree I), several Betjemann children were also being baptised in the more easterly parish of Christchurch, Spitalfields - born to a John Jacob Betjemann and wife Elizabeth. When these were discovered, one immediately wondered if this only other 'pre-Victorian' Betjemann of whom we were aware may have been another son of the elder George Betjemann - one whose baptism, in Wapping say, was somehow overlooked? But there appeared to be no gap in the sequence of births in that family into which such a brother could fit. Moreover, John Jacob named no daughter Eleanor and although he did name one son George, that naming did not take precedence over two earlier sons named John Henry and Joseph Jacob. He was not, it seems, a brother of the younger George Betjemann therefore.

     It is conceivable, however, that these contemporary Betjemann fathers of the second generation may have been first cousins, say, as indicated in the pedigree below - with dotted lines suggesting this as an hypothesis only; they could equally be quite unrelated. However, the name 'Henry' (from Heinrich apparently) appears several times in both these Betjemann 'lines' (and even more in a third one - discovered later) and this communality may yet prove significant. On the other hand, Heinrich appears to have been a very common German name at that time and, moreover, it later became apparent that several other Betjemanns would arrive in England later - between 1830 and 1870, along with hundreds (if not thousands) of other immigrants from north Germany, to work mainly in the Sugar trade. Many were named Heinrich. Had one appreciated this sooner, less interest would no doubt have been invested in the few Betjemanns noted after the arrival of George Betjemann - who came much earlier than these many later arrivals. Nevertheless, having investigated such individuals to some extent, we may as well detail here what was discovered about them. Most other Betjemanns in England seem to have continued on to such as America or Australia.

      At first, it seemed the first child born to John Jacob and Elizabeth was Ann Rebecca Betjemann - baptised in the Spitalfields' parish (and church) called 'Christchurch' - on 19 Jan 1833. But just over a year later, on 6th Apr 1834, this couple had 5 more children baptised in this same church - but on the same one day. These were Mary Ann, John Henry, Joseph Jacob, Sarah Ann and Elizabeth. Some of these would thus have been born before 1833. The church's register was then searched for a possible marriage of this couple prior to 1830 and this was indeed found; they having married there as early as 13 Feb 1825. Both were then single and of that parish. John Jacob signed thus:

while Elizabeth (nee Bull) made her mark (X). At the time of the 1834 baptisms, John was described as a 'Servant' and the family's abode as St Mary's, Whitechapel. One might reasonably assume that he was of this 'occupation' from the early 1820s, say, when he likely entered England. [Alien Lists at the PRO subsequently showed a number of Jacob, John and Heinrich Betjemanns (all Sugar Bakers from Hanover) entered the country in the 1830s and 40s; sadly, such lists do not survive before 1826 however - when John Jacob very likely arrived - a full generation after 'our' George Betjemann.] Their next child, Henrica, (the feminine of Heinrich or Henry) was baptised on 19 Aug 1837, again at Christchurch, even though they were still 'of (neighbouring) Whitechapel'. John was now described as a 'Sugar Baker' (which must be of interest). The two sons, George Christian and Elias Jacob were baptised next - on 15th May 1842 - with John now described as a 'Gun Maker' of Union Street, Whitechapel. The next son, Ernst Luy Ficktohr (?Victor) was baptised 3 Mar 1844, with John still a Gun Maker, now of nearby Thrawl Street, Whitechapel. Like Union Street, this was near Brick Lane (see map below) and may explain why they preferred using Christchurch to St Mary's, a little further away. [In the 'Survey of London', it is pointed out that Thrawl and Union Streets were shortly after this time exceedingly crowded slums where rooms to rent were available at the lowest prices in the capitol. Jack the Ripper was shortly to haunt these same streets.] How and when John Jacob became a Gun Maker - in England or back in Germany - is unknown. One assumes it would have required an apprenticeship. His income was probably quite limited at this time.

      The latter Whitechapel address is confirmed in the entry of this same year for the marriage of his daughter Mary Ann to Carsten Schaffer at Christchurch on 4 Feb 1844 - she a Spinster of 4 Thrawl Street, her father a Gun Maker, and the groom a Bachelor of 63 Lombard Street in the City (possibly then a hostel); he was yet another 'Sugar Baker' whose own father was listed as a Farmer (back in Germany). Although marrying in Christchurch,which falls in Stepney RD, they registered the marriage in the Whitechapel RD, where they likely lived. Witnesses included the bride's father who, on this occasion, signed thus:

      The style of 'Js' and the unlooped 'h' prove consistent in the two signatures but it is not easy to account for the absence of the middle name, the 'g' rather than 'j', and the single rather than double 'nn' of the earlier signature. This relatively early marriage for Mary Ann suggests she was likely John Jacob's first born - in late 1825, say - making her about 18 at her marriage. The year of birth of the eldest son, seemingly John Henry, has also had to be estimated, along with that of the others whose baptisms were performed and recorded 'en masse' on that one day in 1834, some years after their respective births. Unlike many churches at the time, Christchurch did not show both dates. This parish register has not yet been examined for any post-1845 births (or deaths) in this family, although some indication of these and others is suggested in the indexes for Civil birth registrations, described below. Any burials may have been at St Mary's, Whitechapel or St Botolph's, Bishopsgate nearby.
      It may be noted here that Sir John Betjeman, the poet, received information from a professional genealogist in 1968 that a 'John Betjeman' was spotted in an 1851 Census return - for 39 Culworth Street, Bethnal Green, age 53, a Gunmaker, born...'in Germany'. This was clearly the John Jacob Betjemann detailed above - settled in the country from the early 1820s - and father of the Mary Ann Betjemann of Thrawl Street who married Carsten Adolph Schafer (with his clearly Germanic name). This verifies the probability expressed by Hillier that this Betjemann (Mary Ann) was of that same German, ie not Dutch, community in London - when citing such data, along with the middle name of George Betjemann's daughter Catherine Alheit Betjemann, as further evidence of the Germanic (vs Dutch) origin for all of this family. One must agree. It is quite conceivable that the Sugar Baking Betjemanns (originally all Farmers it would appear), from a relatively small area near Bremerhaven in the north of Lower Saxony (Hanover), were all related ultimately.

      From 1837, it was possible to register the births, marriages and deaths of family members in a National civil registry, although this was not compulsory until 1874. Registration was effected at the office of the local 'registration district' (RD) in which one resided. A national, alphabetic index of all these was established - initially at Somerset House, later at St Catherine's House and, since 1997, at the 'Family Record Centre', Clerkenwell (where Wills and Census records are now also kept). To get some idea of the extent of Betjemann birth registrations generally, I checked these indexes - from 1845 (initially) - and found some 22 entries up to 1862. The problem with this approach is that (in the case of births) the parents are not named in the index and the registration district typically contains about a half-dozen or more parishes; searching all such parish registers for confirmation of a suspected parentage can thus be rather tedious. Also, in the East End, the 3 RD offices for St George, Stepney and Whitechapel are relatively near one another and may have been used indiscriminately. Thus, one cannot always be certain of parentage throughout this period - without further enquiry. The map below shows some of the areas where the Betjemanns of both main families considerd here lived and worked at that time.

      We may recall that George's brother Gilbert Betjemann had issue baptised in Whitechapel as well; he lived on Pelham St, Mile End New Town before 1851; this street continued into neighbouring Spitalfields - very near Thrawl and Union streets. In addition, in 1848, George Betjemann Jnr (b 1798), the Barbican area Cabinetmaker of the 1820s/30s - another of this 'other' earlier Betjemann family (and ancestor of the poet) - turns up rather unexpectedly in Whitechapel himself - to marry for the second time (the widow of his 1st wife's brother, who had no known connection with Whitechapel) - when he is shown as residing there on Osborne St, again very near Thrawl St.       I later found that John Jacob was no longer at Thrawl St by the time of the 1851 Census and hence was unable to establish his place of birth by this means. His civil burial entry may help establish his abode - hopefully near the time of a later Census year. A John Betgeman's death was registered in Whitechapel in Dec 1844 but both John Jacob and his son John Henry would seem to have lived beyond 1851. It is possible that this John may have been a son of Gilbert Betjemann. Three of John Jacob's daughters subsequently married in nearby Poplar RD (in St Mary's, Bow) - in the 1850s. The 1851 Census for this area was checked but the film was much too faint to discern detail. I also tried the 1861 Census - for Bethnal Green - where a 4th daughter married in 1859, and for nearby South Hackney, where George Christian Betjemann married in 1862. These too all proved negative in regard to showing towns of birth but it appears that the Census enumerators in any case only noted country of foreign births, not towns or villages as one had hoped.

      It transpired that John Jacob had in fact already died - in Sept 1853 - in Bethnal Green, where he resided latterly, possibly employed by a Gun Maker I noted there. He resided on Culworth Street, as noted above for the 1851 Census. This, as anticipated, showed him simply as having been born 'in Germany' - about 1798 - the same year as was the younger George Betjemann - but in Wapping. Were their fathers brothers and hence they cousins ? And were they in turn related to two other Sugar Baking Betjemanns - Carsten and Heinrich - subsequently discovered and described further below ? [Note that an Elizabeth Betjemann was buried at Abney Park Cemetery (which served Shoreditch and Bethnal Green) on 22 Apr 1871, aged 65+. She may well have been the Elizabeth (nee Bull) who had married John Jacob Betjemann around 1825.]

     Interestingly, one of John Jacob's sons (George Christian bp 15 May 1842) is shown in the 1861 Census and at his marriage to Elizabeth Wood on 2 Nov 1862 (in St John's, South Hackney) to have become a Cabinetmaker himself. He would have trained in the 1850s - possibly with (his possible ?uncle) George or, equally, with some totally unrelated individual. With Elizabeth, he had at least one child - a daughter Adelaide Alice Betjemann registered in Shoreditch in Dec Q 1865 (and possibly a daughter Caroline there in Mar 18662 and two others others in the 1860s - Elizabeth Hannah (1863/4) and Emma Maud (or Maud Emma?) in Hackney in Dec 1867) before losing his wife Eizabeth in Stepney in 1871. He married a 2nd time (Dec 1872) to Mary Ann Pearce (b 1841) in St George-in-the-East. [ (Adelaide) Alice then is found in April 1871 living with her aunt (Elizabeth (nee Betjemann) and uncle Martin Heesemann, he by then a Sugar Refiner of St George in the East (CC)]. Where was Emma Maud that year ? George and Mary Ann then had, in turn, 6 children up to 1881. In the Census index for that year, there is a household in Bethnal Green/Shoreditch listed under the uncertain entry of 'BET---MAN'. When the actual Census entry is examined, it seems likely this will turn out to be the family of this unsuspected 'other' Cabinetmaking Betjemann - George Christian. [Yes, this later verified by his occupation and children's names. They were living then at 1 Gothic House, North Place, Haggerstone (CC). Those born about then to George Christian and Mary Ann, in Shoreditch, Clapton and Walthamstow, included a George Charles (Dec 1873) and Rosetta Christian (1874) in Shoreditch, William (1876), Ada Grace (1877), Mary (1879) and lastly Lewe Betjemann (1881). George Christian appears to have found Cabinetmaking unprofitable sometime that decade at the end of which his 2nd wife Mary Ann also dies - in Whitechapel June 1890. His close (or ?twin) brother Elias Jacob died in 1843 while brother Ernst Luy Ficktor born 1844, also trained in Cabinetmaking (as Lewis Betjemann) as per 1861 Census. He married twice - in 1863 to Mary Sarah Blumson (as Hern (?Henry) Lewe) and in 1874 to Selina Mary Caddy (as Lewis), both in Shoreditch (CC). Did he remain in this trade and have any issue ?

      At [ the next Census (1891), George Christian is apparently shown as a Barman living at the Rutland Arms, 57 Pearson St, Shoreditch(CC) ]. I'm not aware if he had a new (3rd) wife yet living with him there (as eg an Eleanor born ca 1873 in either Ireland or Wales (see below). He (it seems) is also shown (CC) in 1891 - as a 'Beer & WineHouse Keeper' at 2 Commercial Road, Whitechapel. This may have been an entry in a Commercial Directory of the time or it could be a Census entry itself and the former the Directory entry, if not one or other for George Christian's son George Charles Betjemann (bn c1873) - or vice versa. George Jnr appears to be the who was sent to Pentonville prison after a trial at Clerkenwell in 1893 - for stealing funds (for the second time; the previous occurrence having been in Dec 1891). His older half-sister Adelaide Alice, in the Hackney Smallpox Hospital in 1881, married in Hackney RD in Jun 1890 to a George Berrey and died in 1944 in Nth Bucks (CC).

     It was later found (via Old Bailey archives) that George Christian was himself tried at the Old Bailey on 6 March 1893 and found Guilty of False Representation, Deception and Fraud in that he had assumed the identity of one Walter Blackbrow in order to obtain employment in a Public House with a false character reference and once so employed had stolen money from the till there (on Middlesex Street), claiming he was put up to it by Blackbrow.] This latter son, whose 1891 Census entry is indexed under 'Lewes Betzamann', became a Tailor in Bethnal Green and (as recently learned by Alan Betjemann from a grandson of said Lewe(s) - David Hersant) was married in the 1920s to an Elizabeth Mary Graham (1894-1988) with whom he had two daughters - the younger being David's mother. Meanwhile, George Christian appears to have married for a 3rd time - to an Eleanor - and they then lived at the time of the 1901 census on St Peter Rosd, Mile End when George was 59 and wife Eleanor only 28 (b 1873 - in Rhyl, Wales). However, an Eleanor Betjemann was also noted on an earlier Census (for 1891) as born in Co Cavan, Ireland ca 1873 (which one can't seem presently to verify) which would seem to indicate that she had already married a Betjemann by ca April 1891. If the age given for George in 1901 (59) should really have been 29, we might conclude that Eleanor had married (or 'taken up with'(?)) the younger George - possibly as early as 1891 (but the latter was born in Dalston (CC) while the George of Mile End in 1901 stated he was born in that area of Srepney. George does not appear on the 1891 Census either although the last born of George's children with Mary Ann (nee Pearce), Lewe Betjemann, noted on ?'s 1891 Census index as 'Lewes Betzamann', was born abt 1880/81 in Shoreditch, while Ada (?Grace) and Rosetta Betzemann, born respectively about 1877 and 1875, do so appear. Was an Eleanor Betjemann/Betzemann not already with (and caring for) them, albeit only aged 18 herself? Or was she already with the elder son George Charles, elsewhere ? If so, who was caring for the younger children (as Lewes) that year ? (Seemingly his older brother William Jacob on Regent's Row, Shoreditch.)

      George Christian's eldest daughter Elizabeth Hannah (born ca 1865) married in 1884 Charles Crighton and with him had (in ?London) Charles (1885), Gerty (1888) and Alfred (1891). They migrated to South Africa ca 1893 where Elizabeth died in 1943, in Johannesburg. Her sister, Emma Maud, born Clapton 1867, married in 1891 in Whitechapel to Percy Hedger from whom a Trevor Hanson descends. He had posted (on the Internet) the surname Betjemann as one of his interests. Rosetta Christian and her sister Ada Grace were both born in Walthamstow (in 1874 and 1877) and were noted in the 1891 Census under the surname Betzemann, Ada as a Servant at 1 Victoria Park Road, Hackney. Neither appears to have married. Rosetta died in Edmonton in 1953 and Ada in Surrey in 1968. Their brother William Jacob, born between them in 1876, also in Walthamstow, apprenticed with a German-born Tailor with whom he lived in 1891 at 4 Regent's Row, Shoreditch. He married Alvina Siegert (also German) in Mar Q 1898 in Shoreditch and, by 1901, they lived next door at No. 3 and had had 2 daughters Gertrude (1899) and a new Rosetta (1900) in Haggerston, Shoreditch. Their grandfather George Christian Betjemann (b 1841) lived to 1934, his death registered in Bethnal Green the June Q that year, aged a noteworthy 92.

A Third Betjemann Pedigree.

      An answer to the matter of who were the parents of whom in the Whitechapel-Stepney-Wapping area - where, surprisingly, John Jacob, Gilbert Slater and George Betjemann Jnr all resided during the difficult 1840s, is further complicated by the discovery of this other set of Betjemann data; ie see Betjemann pedigree III - Outline below. It would appear that John Jacob (who may or may not have been a 'cousin' of some degree of the younger, 1798-born George Betjemann) could have had an elder brother 'Heinrich Betjemann' - a Farmer back in Germany - whose two sons - 'Carsten and 'Heinrich Betjemann Jnr - emigrated to England about 1830 or so (as estimated). They may have felt one or other of their 'uncle(s)' in England could help them to better futures than by remaining on the farm in Lower Saxony (aka Hanover). Carsten, probably the elder brother, seems to have married quite soon - within the emigre community in Wapping - to a 'Sophia Maria Dettmar - on 31 Oct 1841 in St John's church there, after banns (the marriage registered in Stepney RD). He was then an unskilled Sugar Warehouseman. Both signed the church register - Carsten thus:

when they resided at 81 Parson St, Wapping; her father David Dettmar was a 'Sugar Baker' and his, Heinrich Betjemann (Snr), a Farmer (back in Germany). Witnesses included Carsten's brother Heinrich (the younger), who also signed:
      Carsten and Sophia had several children subsequently baptised at St George-in-the-East church, also in Wapping . The first was Sophia Maria Betjemann, born 4 Sept 1842; the family now residing on Elizabeth St, Wapping, with Carsten still a Warehouseman. Next they had Anna Betjemann on 15 Oct, baptised 12 Nov, 1843 when living at 42 Betts St; Carsten now a Sugar Baker. And thirdly, they had their first son - Henry Carsten Betjemann on 8 April - baptised 11 May, 1845 - again on Betts St. Carsten was now described as a Sugar Refiner. Later children appear to include two Elizabeths and a Herman David Betjemann (1850). These births were mostly registered (civilly) in the St George RD although some may have been in the nearby Stepney RD. The progression from 'Warehouseman' (and sometimes 'Labourer') through 'Sugar Baker' to 'Sugar Refiner' recalls John Jacob's sequence from 'Servant' via 'Sugar Baker' to 'Gun Maker'; that is, such men, often raised on farms back in Germany, may have arrived with few prior skills and started where they could - often within the emigre community - and worked their way up in this or other trades.
      In the 1851 Census, Carsten and family were at 57 Betts St which would seem to have been in Upper Town, Wapping - nr Ratcliffe Highway. He was now shown as a Sugar Refiner, aged 36, born (ca 1814) in 'Hannover, Germany' (ie Lower Saxony). His wife Sophia was 32, born in Wapping (1819). They had 4 children: Sophia 8, Henry 5, Elizabeth 2 and Herman 1. In addition, there were 14 single men aged 25-35 listed in the house - all working for or with Carsten apparently - as 'Sugar House labourers', as well as a House Servant and a Clerk - all born in 'Hanover'. This term would seem to refer to the state of Hanover (or Lower Saxony), not the city, for I noted others elsewhere in Wapping in this same trade shown as born in eg 'Hesse', another state. According to Hillier, Carsten and family later returned to Germany (to Cologne) where he had two more children in the early 1850s and then moved to Sweden, where he and Sophia had a daughter Lucy in 1857. This seems to have been based on correspondence sent to Sir John Betjeman (ca 1975?) from a descendant of Carsten - namely Marie Louise Thummel (nee Betjemann) - who had heard stories in her youth that they were related to the English Poet Laureate. No direct connection was apparently ever verified. I wrote to this lady in Nov 1998 and eventually had a reply - in Nov 1999 (!). She hoped to search some relevant church registers for me 'when she had time'. I later discovered that Carsten had petitioned for a Certificate of Naturalization - in April 1846 - which was granted. He was then employed as a Refiner for a large enterprise owned by one Octavius Coope and wanted to start up on his own. As an alien, he couldn't legally buy the freehold or leasehold land needed, so sought the above Certificate to remove that status. However, as mentioned, he seems to have returned to Germany and thence Sweden without following up on this plan.

      Carsten's brother Heinrich married - on 22 Dec 1844 - also in St John's church, Wapping (after banns) to a Sarah Johnson. Both were said to be of 81 Parson St, with Heinrich then a 'Sugar Baker', son of Farmer, Heinrich Betjemann Snr. Sarah's father was John Bowman Johnson, a Rope Maker (of which Wapping then had many) - eg around Cable St - for the maritime trade). The younger Heinrich signed, similarly to above, as did brother Carsten, as witness. They too, it would appear, had issue registered in Stepney and St George, as well as in Whitechapel, including Anna Elizabeth (1845), Sarah (1847), Sophia (1853), John Henry (1855), William Herman (1858) and Emma (1861). The qualification 'it would appear' is included because the parents of these children were, in fact, registered as Henry and Sarah Betjemann, the 'shift' to this apparent English equivalent possibly occurring to the extent that the German version (Heinrich) stood out more than desired, compared, say, to Carsten, who retained that name. They were likely also the parents of a Henry Betjemann born and died Mar Q 1850 in West Ham. They were no longer on Parson Street, as per the 1851 Census. It turns out that this was because the family had moved to Southampton where that next census shows both parents and the two older sisters Ann and Elizabth as well as a new 2 day old Louisa Betjemann and where Henry Snr was now working as a Sugar House foreman. By 1853, they had all returned to the Whitechapel and St George areas in London and had their last 4 children as detailed above. John Henry (as Johann Jurgen Heinrich) married in 1877 in Whitechapel.

      I then found a Mrs Sarah Betjemann listed in an 1861 PO Directory - as licensee of 'The Crown' public house at 14 Rupert St, Goodman Flats, East London (in Whitechapel). This turned out to be Heinrich/Henry's wife. One of their daughters (Anna Elizabeth) later married in Camberwell (to Albert Osenton an Engine Driver living on Old Kent Road (1869), so the 1871 Census for that district was thought a means of possibly revealing Heinrich's place of birth - hopefully more specifically than shown for the many German-born residents of Wapping in 1851 - when the German region (state) only is typically shown. I could however not locate them there in 1871. It was later established that Heinrich/Henry had in fact died on 14 Oct 1860 - just before the birth of this last child - when, as Henry Betjemann, he had been the licensed victualler of the Crown public house. He left a Will with effects valued at £1000. Sarah died just 4 years later, leaving her 4 Betjemann children under the care of their grandmother Elizabeth Johnson. What became of them one wonders ? Carsten and family returned to Germany about then; did they take his orphaned nieces and nephews with them? I note, however, that one of Carsten's sons (Hermann) died, at the age of just 21, in Richmond, Surrey in 1871. Had he returned to the UK (from the continent, in the previous 3 or 4 years - ie to his country of birth - or had he never left ?

Other Betjemanns in England.

      The 1851 Census revealed one 'Lucy Bettjemann, aged 31, at 27 New Road (near Betts St, Wapping), living with a butcher Robert Frost and family. She was born in Southwark and shown as the wife of a 'Captain at Sea'. Who was this latter sea-going Betjemann - born about 1815, say ? A Henry Betjemann, mariner, married a Mary Ann Coombs (b 1823) in Stoke Dameral, Plymouth in 1841, where several children were born to them, including Elizabeth Ann (1842), Sarah Ann (1853), John Henry (1853), who died an infant, and Henrica (1857), who married a John Finn there in 1878. This Henry was thus likely born about 1815. In 1851, he was living at 8 Hill St, Plymouth (aged ?). Did he have a girl (Lucy) in another port? He would have been a contemporary of Carsten and Heinrich. His father had this same name and was also a mariner - born about 1790, say, presumably in Germany. Ellis Island Immigration records (in New York) show a Henry Betjemann, Mariner entered that port on 3 or 4 occasions in the later 1800s.

      Another John Henry Betjemann, a Sugar Baker, was born in Hanover about 1807. In 1851, he resided on South Road, Gt Crosby, Lancs and died in the Islington district of Liverpool in 1865, aged 58 - as did a Charlotte Betjemann in 1874, also 58 (b Liverpool), possibly his wife. His daughter, also Charlotte, was the informant in the former case and possibly in the latter as well. Being born about 1806/7 (to whom?), this John Henry was clearly not the son of this name born to John Jacob about 1827. Possibly he was the latter's brother? He likely married around 1830 or so, at least for the first time. The 1861 Census for Islington, Liverpool could be checked sometime.

-- -- -- -- -- --

      The name Heinrich, and hence Henry (as well as John), thus appears to be significant in the back-ground and inter-relationships of all three Betjemann lines discussed above - which could suggest a possible common ancestor. There may thus have been others derived from this or related sources back in Hanover, as in Bokel. The list of immigrant German Sugarbakers produced by the Anglo-German FHS, shows that there were several other Betjemanns entering the country in the mid to late 19th century which could account for certain 'floating' Betjemanns. Where their lines didn't die out, they may have continued on to America - where Internet university indexes, for example, show there are today several of this family studying. Some may of course have come more directly with the massive immigration of Germans into America in the late 1800s/early 1900s.

      There was seemingly one other Henry in England who married in late 1863 - shown as 'Henry or Herns' Lewe Betjeman' in Shoreditch. However, I suspect that this was in fact the last son of John Jacob - baptised as 'Ernst Luy Ficktor' about 1844. There was also a later marriage of a 'Lewis' Betjemann in Shoreditch in Dec 1874 which could well be a second one for this same man (his elder brother George Christian living then in this same district). Finally, there was a 'Johann Jurgen H. Bettjemann who married in Whitechapel in the June Q 1879. [But see now above; was it 1877 ?] If this was a 1st marriage, we can estimate his age to be about 23-27, say, and so born around 1855. To whom and where? If the H. stood for 'Heinrich', we would seem to have as the English version 'John George Henry Betjemann' - all names that have predominated in our Betjemann account! Who was he? [As noted above, it later became apparent that it was a mistake to assume that there was a small, delimited network of Betjemanns residing in the UK in the early 20th century all of whom could, with effort, be identified as part of a single family; very distant 'cousins' - albeit all from a relatively small area near Bremen - continued to leave that area - some for England but most for America.]

      In the index of surnames compiled for the 1881 Census, all the Betjeman(n) entries noted for the London/Middlesex area (as well as for surrounding counties in SE England) appear to be restricted to those of George Snr's line and specifically to those of the two families of 'Harry' Betjemann (son of Henry John) and John Betjemann (son of George). Where did any male descendants of Gilbert get to by that year? [There was apparently only one - who died before marrying.] And what of those descended from John Jacob, Carsten and Heinrich ? Did they all die...or emigrate? Carsten did - back to Germany - as described above. Various facts thus emerged about Carsten's origins with implications about Sir John's family deriving from the same area near Bremerhaven (Bokel-Stotel- etc) - as already concluded. These are also touched on in Hillier's book on 'Young Betjeman' [But see now in Betjemann pedigree I for confirmation of the origin of George Betjemann's line (in Bramstedt). Those in the other Betjemann families discussed above appear not to be particularly close relatives.]

      Did any of these other Betjemanns or their issue move to any of the many industrial areas of England? No; I later checked all counties of England for this 1881 index; only George Stanley's family was noted (in Hampshire) in addition to the above two. As mentioned, other male progeny would appear either to have died or emigrated by the late 1880s - eg to the USA. The PO Directory shows no Betjeman(n) as a Gun Maker or a Sugar Refiner from 1851 onward - only the two Cabinetmakers: George & Sons of Clerkenwell (leading to the Poet) and Henry John & Sons of Oxford St (the latter dying himself in 1867) - leading to Alan Betjemann (ex-lecturer Lancaster University), now retired to France (with sons). {After this was written, we have had the 1901 and 1911 Censuses, and a further check may be made thereof regarding any Betjemann lines that may have continued here.

      One of the anomalies referred to was resolved when it was discovered that there were two other Betjemann households - wrongly listed in the 1881 index (due to transcription errors) under the spelling 'Betzemann' and another one under 'Bet---man' which (as mentioned above) turned out to be that of George Christian Betjemann, son of John Jacob, born in 1842 - who later trained as a Cabinetmaker (one of only two to have gone into this trade from that 'side' of the family (in England) at that time). This completes this account of the 'other' Betjemanns in England. My thanks to Alan Betjemann and to Colin Cornes for tying up many 'loose ends' in both sections of this account.

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